Anticariogenic - A food that contributes favorably to dental health by discouraging acid production.
Antioxidant - A substance that prevents cell damage from free radicals.
Beriberi - A vitamin B1 (thiamin) deficiency which causes loss of appetite, muscle weakness, enlarged heart, and burning tongue.
Cariogenic - A fermentable carbohydrate that will cause a reduction of salivary and plaque pH to less than 5.5, thus promoting tooth decalcification.
Cariostatic - Caries-inhibiting.
Cheilosis - Unilateral or bilateral presence of cracks in the corners of the mouth.
Cholesterol - Waxy lipid found in all body cells; made by the liver and found only in animal products.
Collagen - Connective tissue that helps support body structures such as skin, bones, teeth and tendons.
Complex carbohydrate - Sugars containing more than 12 carbon atoms. Found in foods such as whole grains, vegetables, and beans.
Demineralization - The removal or loss of calcium, phosphate, and other minerals from tooth enamel.
Diet history - A detailed dietary record which may include a 24 hour or 3,5, and 7 day recall.
Dysphagia - Difficulty swallowing.
Fermentable carbohydrate - Carbohydrates that can be metabolized by bacteria in plaque to decrease the pH to a level where demineralization occurs.
Free radical - Causes cell damage by way of oxidation.
Glossitis - Inflammation of the tongue.
HDL - High-density lipoproteins, also referred to as healthy cholesterol.
Heme Iron - Iron provided from animal sources.
Homeostasis - To maintain a relatively stable state of equilibrium.
Hyperlipidemia - Elevated concentrations of triglycerides and/or cholesterol.
Insulin - A hormone needed for cell utilization of carbohydrates.
LDL - Low-density lipoproteins, also referred to bad cholesterol.
Legumes - A plant that grows from a pea or a pod.
Nonheme iron - Iron provided from a plant source.
Nutrient-dense - Containing a high percentage of nutrients in relation to the number of calories it provides.
Osteopenia - A decrease in density, calcification, or insufficient synthesis of bone which may put an individual at risk for osteoporosis.
Refined carbohydrate - Processed carbohydrates from which the fiber and bran have been removed, leaving only starch.
Vegan - A person who eats only a plant based diet and consumes no foods of animal origin.6